National Borders Definition
A landscape border is a mixture of political and natural boundaries. An example is the defensive forest created by the Chinese Song Dynasty in the eleventh century.  Such a boundary is political in the sense that it is humanly delimited, usually by a treaty. However, a landscape boundary is not delimited by fences and walls, but by landscape features such as forests, mountains, and water bodies. However, it differs from a natural border in that the border landscape is not natural, but man-made. Such a landscape is usually different from the natural geography of the border area, and its construction requires enormous human labor and financial investment. The permeability of borders depends on their construction, the availability of border crossing points, regulations and the nature or scope of the activity. Permeability can vary, borders can be barriers for humans, but also for animal migrations or types of pollution. Guadiana International Bridge on the Portuguese-Spanish border, whose borders were established in 1297 by the Treaty of Alcañices. It is one of the oldest borders in the world. A frame is a line that separates areas. Borders can be real or invented by humans.
Borders separates countries, states, provinces, counties, cities, and towns. A border defines the territory that a government controls. The government of a region can only create and enforce laws within its borders. A maritime boundary is a division that surrounds an area in the ocean where a nation has exclusive rights to mineral and living resources, which includes features, boundaries, and maritime areas.  Maritime boundaries constitute the limits of jurisdiction of a maritime nation and are recognized by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Natural boundaries are geographic features that are natural barriers to communication and movement. Existing political boundaries are often a formalization of these historical and natural obstacles. Throughout history, technological advances have reduced the cost of transportation and communications across natural boundaries. This has diminished the importance of natural boundaries over time. As a result, political borders that have been formalized more recently, such as those of Africa or America, generally correspond to less natural borders than very old borders, such as those of Europe or Asia. Horizontal boundaries are defined by international law as being 12 nautical miles from the coast of a country. As regards vertical boundaries, there are no international rules on the distance at which an airspace boundary extends into space.
However, there is a general agreement called the Kármán line, which is a peak point at an altitude of 62mi (100 km) above the Earth`s surface. This establishes a boundary between airspace in the atmosphere and outer space. In much of Europe, checks on persons were abolished by the 1985 Schengen Agreement and subsequent European Union legislation. Since the Treaty of Amsterdam, the competence to enact laws on the crossing of internal and external borders within the European Union and the associated Schengen States (Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein) falls exclusively within the competence of the European Union, unless the States have exercised a special right of opt-out (United Kingdom and Ireland, which maintain the common travel space between them). The southeastern European region known as the Balkans has a long history of border fighting. Sometimes borders are used to keep citizens inside. Most governments with these “closed borders” are not democratic. In addition to North Korea, countries like Myanmar and Cuba rarely allow their residents to cross their borders. Borders can also be used to protect resources. Sometimes U.S. borders congressional districts protect ethnic, religious, or economic communities. Citizens within these boundaries often vote as a unit, based on shared political beliefs.
The representative of the territory in the United States House of Representatives must be aware of the interests within the boundaries of his district. The concerns of a representative from the urban area of St. Louis, Missouri, for example, are less likely to affect farmers than those of a representative from rural, agriculture-dominated Missouri. The representative from rural Missouri would be less concerned about transit issues, which are much more common in cities. Many border disputes arise when people fight for natural resources. For example, Sudan and Egypt have been arguing for decades over an area called Hala`ib. This land triangle along the Red Sea is rich in manganese, an essential ore for iron and steel production. It is also used as an additive in unleaded gasoline. The Sudanese government claims that the land legally belongs to Sudan, but currently belongs to Egypt. Often, political boundaries separate groups of people who share a common religion, culture, ancestry or language. The border between North and South Korea, for example, is purely political; The Korean people share a united history, culture and language. The German nation was divided between East Germany and West Germany from 1949 to 1989.
Like the Korean border, it was a purely political division between the democratic West and the communist East. Germany was reunified in 1990 and the border disappeared. Often, an ethnic group wants to separate and form its own independent state. This can lead to civil war. The southeastern European region on the Balkan Peninsula (known as the Balkans) has a long history of ethnic conflicts and disputed borders. The country of Yugoslavia emerged after World War I from many small political units. After World War II, Yugoslavia became a communist country under Field Marshal Josip Broz Tito. Despite Yugoslavia`s many different languages, cultures and religions, Tito and his successors were able to maintain a stable nation until the fall of communism in the early 1990s. After the fall of communism, however, democratic movements swept through Central and Eastern Europe. Autocratic leaders were unable to maintain power. In the Balkans, old quarrels have begun to resurface.
Bosniaks, Serbs, Croats, Macedonians and Slovenes began fighting for control of the region. Even within these national groups, ethnic or religious minorities aspired to independence: Bosnian Serbs sought independence from Bosnia, while citizens of the Kosovo region sought independence because of their Muslim identity. The territory that was once Yugoslavia now consists of seven countries: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Kosovo.